Australian Pulse Bulletin
Chickpea fungicide guide: 2022 season
Foliar fungicides can help manage the chickpea diseases Ascochyta blight (AB) and Botrytis grey mould (BGM), but when to commence a fungicide program and how often to spray, depends on the varietal resistance, disease pressure (from last year’s stubble and seedborne ascochyta), weather conditions and the potential yield of the crop. Bear in mind that AB is endemic in paddocks that have a history of chickpea in many areas of Qld and NNSW, and BGM is a widespread disease of many crops so an integrated disease management approach including crop rotation and cultural practices should be considered when growing chickpeas. Chickpea after chickpea can never be recommended as varietal resistance will quickly be reduced or overcome.
Pulse Australia have Minor Use Permits from APVMA in place for 2022 to help growers with disease control and these are shown in the table below along with all the current registered products.
Fungal disease control is based on the use of integrated disease management to minimise the injury to crops from plant pathogens. Efficient use of foliar fungicides is based upon the protection of plants rather than curing existing infections. The first fungicide application must be applied as early as necessary to minimise the establishment of the disease especially in paddocks that have had a history of chickpea. Current research shows that foliar fungicide application prior to rainfall events at the early vegetative stage will prevent the early development of AB that can translate to yield increases or at least to maintaining expected yields. Additional fungicide applications are required if weather conditions favour disease development, but the best management recommendation for disease control remains that foliar fungicides should be applied prior to forecast rainfall to provide the greatest level of protection. Post-infection applications should not be a planned part of your standard disease management plan. Chlorothanonil and mancozeb are persistent and rain-fast, but do not prevent infection if applied after rainfall events.
Fungicides remain effective on leaves that are receive good coverage, but keep in mind that all new growth after spraying is unprotected. In winter new leaves may take 5-7 days to grow but in spring as conditions warm up this is reduced to 2-3 days. Timing of fungicide applications is critical. An application in advance of a rain front provides maximum opportunities for protection. Delaying application until after a rain front reduces efficacy significantly, as rainfall will rapidly promote spread of inoculum. In some instances, high levels of inoculum may be present in paddocks, requiring a protective fungicide application soon after crop emergence. Close monitoring for early symptoms will give greater opportunities to minimise disease establishment and yield loss.
The need for repeated fungicide applications depends on the growth stage of the crop, the time since the last fungicide application and the likelihood of further conditions favouring disease development. Unprotected crops may be quickly defoliated and destroyed by the infection. Under favourable disease conditions, varieties that are susceptible (rated S) to AB will require multiple sprays through the season, while varieties with moderate susceptibility (rated MS) to AB will require at least 3-4 sprays over the season. Growers are recommended to rotate and mix fungicides from different group to minimise the risk of fungicide resistance developing in the pathogen populations.
The choice of fungicide is less important than the timing, but when multiple sprays are required during the season it is critical to rotate different products and modes of action to preserve the effectiveness of all the fungicide choices. Follow this link for advice on maintaining fungicide efficacy for the grain industry.
Seasonal Conditions in 2022
After several good seasons in 2020 and 2021 that produced record yields in many areas of Australia, rainfall has been variable over summer in many regions. NSW and Queensland have had good rainfall over summer that has given full soil moisture profiles (some paddocks waterlogged). South Australia started with dry conditions for sowing winter crops but have recently received adequate rain to get crops germinated. Victoria had early plant establishment with warm soils and good soil- moisture in most areas, resulting in a higher disease risk. In Western Australia conditions have been very favourable for sowing crops and regular rain events have followed. This season will be favourable for many diseases as we head into spring. Many of these diseases need only limited moisture to infect crops (heavy dew or fog provides enough moisture), so monitoring needs to be continued throughout the season. Later in the season after canopy closure, higher water rates will aid in canopy penetration. Timely fungicide applications ahead of rain events will give the crop the best chance of a high yield. Susceptible crops need continuing fungicide protection for good pod fill so timely application of fungicides by ground sprayers will give the spray coverage required. Growers are recommended to rotate and mix fungicides from different group to minimise the risk of fungicide resistance developing in the pathogen populations.
Pulse Australia acknowledges the input of the state government pathologists in the preparation of this seasonal guide : Kurt Lindbeck (NSW DPI), Sara Blake (SARDI), Josh Fanning (Vic DPI), Geoff Thomas (WA DPIRD).
For more detailed information on disease management:
- Chickpea: Integrated disease management
- CropPro chickpea crop disease manual
- Fungicide resistance in grain crops (including pulses)
Ascochyta blight on chickpea pod (G Cumming)
'Ghosting' caused by ascochyta blight on chickpea leaves (SARDI)
Botrytis grey mould (P Davis)
Fungicide Minor Use Permits for chickpea
- PER81406 Captan / Ascochyta blight, chocolate spot, grey mould / Current to 30-Sep-2023 (All States)
Fungicides registered for use on chickpea
|Chickpea Foliar Fungicide
|Trade Name example
|Chlorothalonil 720 (M5)
|CC Barrack 720
|Mancozeb 750 (M3)
|Mancozeb 420 (M3)
|Carbendazim (Group 1)
|Captan 900 (M4)
|CC Captan 900
|Permit 1.1 kg/ha
|Permit 1.1 kg/ha
|Captan 800 (M4)
|CC Captan 800
|Permit 1.25 kg/ha
|Permit 1.25 kg/ha
|Azoxystrobin (Group 11) 120 g/L and Tebuconazole (Group 3) 200 g/L
|Azoxystrobin 625g/l (Group 1) + tebuconazole 430g/kg (Group 3)
|Mirador 625 + Orius 430
|150–190 mL/ha + 350–460 mL/ha
|150–190 mL/ha + 350–460 mL/ha
|Metiram 700 (M3)
|Bixafen (Group 7) + Prothioconazole (Group 3)
|Fludioxonil 150 (Group 12) + Pydiflumetofen 100 (Group 7)
|NA – do not apply after end of flowering
Many of the Minor Use Permits have short term expiry dates (e.g. 30/11/2017)
NR = Not Registered for this disease
Read the LabelAs with any chemical application, care should be taken to observe all the label conditions for each product. Some label advice is different for each state or region, so for best results, it is important that this is followed. Many of our pulse crops are exported for human consumption, so market access is dependent on having the product free of chemical residues. Australian has a reputation for providing clean and safe produce so it is vital that this is maintained by using chemicals according to regulations. All permits have label recommendations for use rate and withholding periods (WHP) that must be observed so grain will comply with Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) allowable for market access.
Support and funding acknowledgement
Information provided in this guide was correct at the time of the date shown below. No responsibility is accepted by Pulse Australia for any commercial outcomes from the use of information contained in this guide.
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Readers who act on this information do so at their own risk.
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Last updated: 26 July 2022